Deepak Nayyar taught Economics at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, for twenty-five years (1986 to 2011). He also taught in the Department of Economics at the New School of Social Research, New York, where he had an appointment as Distinguished University Professor of Economics (2008 to 2012). Earlier, he has taught at the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta (1980 to 1983), the University of Sussex (1973 to 1980) and the University of Oxford (1971 to 1973). He has been a Visiting Professor at the University of Paris, Catholic University in Rio de Janeiro and Sciences-Po, Paris.
During his teaching career, he has taught both undergraduate and graduate students a wide range of courses, including international economics, macroeconomics, economic theory and development economics. In addition, he has taught courses on the Indian economy, law and economics, trade and industrialization, globalization and development, transition economies, and transnational corporations. He has also supervised the research of a large number of PhD students.